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2015年托福背景阅读:水烟的危害

2016-04-06 13:32:06    来源: 楷维留学指南www.keywin.org    责编:editor6

楷维留学网小编为大家搜集了2015年托福背景阅读,希望考生们能够在不断的练习中阅读能力得到提高!

楷维留学网小编为大家搜集了2015年托福背景阅读,希望考生们能够在不断的练习中阅读能力得到提高!

文章:水烟的危害

World health experts warned Thursday that smokingwater pipes, long popular in the Middle East andNorth Africa and with a growing fan base elsewhere,can be more harmful than cigarettes.

世界卫生专家近期警告称, 在中东和北非盛行的水烟危害程度可能比香烟更大,全球其他地区也有越来越多的水烟爱好者。

"A single puff from a water pipe is nearly equal to thevolume of smoke inhaled from an entire cigarette,"said The Tobacco Atlas launched at the WorldConference on Tobacco OR Health in Abu Dhabi.

在阿布扎比的世界烟草或健康大会上推出的世界烟草图册显示;"从水烟管吸入一口的烟量几乎等于吸入一整只香烟的量。”

And World Health Organization tobacco expert Edouard Tursan d'Espaignet said "one session ofshisha (water pipe) can be equal to smoking 20 to 30 cigarettes in one go, which can be verydangerous."

世界卫生组织烟草专家爱德华•图尔桑•艾斯帕内特说“吸食一次什莎(水烟)的量可能等于一口气吸食20到30只香烟的量,这是很危险的。”

The water pipe, variously known as a hubbly-bubbly, hookah, shisha or nargileh, has become amajor worry for anti-tobacco campaigners as its is popularised across university campuses,overlooked by regulators.

水烟的叫法五花八门,如 hubbly-bubbly,hookah,shisha或者nargileh,而因为其在大学校园颇为流行并被管理者忽视,所以水烟已成为反烟运动者主要的担忧。

In recent years, its use has spread to the United States, Europe and, to a lesser extent,SouthAmerica.

近年来,水烟已流入美国、欧洲和南美的部分地区。

Gemma Vestal of the WHO's Tobacco Free Initiative told AFP that while shishas were previouslythe domain of older males, "younger people between 18- and 24-years old living in cities andeducated" are increasingly smoking them.

世界卫生组织无烟倡议行动的杰玛•维斯塔说,虽然先前吸食水烟的群体是老年男性,但是越来越多年龄在18岁到24岁之间、住在城市且受过教育的年轻人都开始吸食水烟。

The chairman of pathology and laboratory medicine at the American University of Beirut, GhaziZaatari, says aromatic flavourings known as maasal added to the tobacco offer youngersmokers a "smoother and more tolerated" alternative to the taste of traditional tobacco.

贝鲁特美国大学的病理学和实验室医学主席加齐•扎泰里说,水烟中添加的一种叫做maasal的芳香味道给年轻烟民提供了比传统烟草“更顺畅,更易接受”的味道。

And the "water pipe has an interesting design because it somewhat engages your five senses.You're holding the hose, there’s something you're looking at, there is the aroma, there is thesound of the bubbling and there is this kind of sensational thing with the social gathering."

而且水烟的设计很有趣,因为它从某种程度上同时调动吸烟者的五官感受。你拿着烟管,你看着它,它有香味,它有冒泡的声音,此外,在社交聚会中吸水烟是一件多么美妙的事。

In social gatherings that last for an average of an hour, the smoker can quickly get "hooked onit because of the nicotine."

在持续平均一小时的社交聚会中,水烟吸食者会迅速对它上瘾,因为它含有尼古丁。

Moreover, the smoke from charcoal used to heat the tobacco contains toxins.

此外,用于加热烟草木炭释放的烟雾也含有毒素。

The WHO said harmful effects include impact on the "respiratory system, cardiovascularsystem, oral activity and teeth."

世界卫生组织称,它会对人的健康造成危害,包括损坏呼吸系统,心血管系统,口腔活动和牙齿等。

In addition to the dangers of lung cancer, data also suggest probable associations with oral,oesophageal, gastric, and urinary bladder cancer, as well as chronic bronchitis, cardiovasculardisease, stroke as well as other illnesses.

除了肺癌的危险,数据还表明吸食水烟的危害可能与口腔癌、食管癌、胃癌和膀胱癌,以及慢性支气管炎、心血管疾病、中风,以及其他疾病相关联。

Global tobacco companies are increasingly investing in the water pipe business, experts say,while little has been done to curb their use, despite a crackdown on cigarettes.

专家表示,全球的烟草公司正越来越多地投资于水烟行业,但是除了打击烟草行业以外,对于水烟的消费没有任何限制措施。

According to The Tobacco Atlas, "water pipes fall into a less heavily or un-regulated group oftobacco products" in most countries.

根据烟草图册介绍,水烟在大多数国家是不受严重监管或不监管的烟草产品。

"There has been a gap for a while and now hopefully, with this global effort, they (tobaccoregulators) are coming back to emphasise the importance of including the water pipe in all thesepolicies and regulations on tobacco," Zaatari said.

“这个缺口已经存在一段时间了,希望通过全球的努力,他们(烟草监管者)能够强调将水烟纳入所有烟草政策和法规监管的重要性,”扎泰里说。

Brazil has taken measures to ban flavourings, while Turkey has extended warning labelling fromcigarette packets to include the water pipe.

巴西已经采取措施禁止在水烟中加入香料,同时土耳其已将之前有关香烟烟盒上必须有警告标志的规定执行范围扩展至水烟领域。

And the ruler of the UAE emirate of Sharjah has banned the use of water pipes altogether,earning him an award this week from the WHO.

阿拉伯联合酋长国的沙迦酋长国国王已下令彻底禁止吸食水烟,世界卫生组织因此给他颁了一个奖。

Vocabulary

pathology:病理学

hose:软管

aroma:香味

oesophageal cancer:食道癌

urinary bladder cancer:膀胱癌

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